Common Turbo Information and FAQ

User avatar
Random Dude
Forum Over-Moderator
Forum Over-Moderator
Posts: 3391
Joined: Thu Jan 12, 2006 5:13 pm
Location: Hiding in your blind spot...

Common Turbo Information and FAQ

Postby Random Dude » Wed Nov 14, 2007 12:44 am

BIG list of Subaru bolt on turbos:



How a turbo works, history, misc facts etc

http://www.wrx.com.au/forum/viewtopic.php?t=46700

cpitts wrote:This site that has some REALLY good explanaitons about how a turbo works, how twin entry/scroll is better than single, etc, etc, etc.

Have a read of some of the Turbo Facts, they're great!

Borg Warner Turbo's -> http://www.turbos.bwauto.com/products/default.aspx

Click on the topics:
* History
* Principles
* Advantages
* Design & Function
* Development
* Recommendations
* Troubleshooting

for a better read with great diagrams.
Brenton

MrEs
Ex-Webmaster of 4 years
Ex-Webmaster of 4 years
Posts: 8682
Joined: Tue Jan 25, 2005 2:02 am
Location: 03 rexy

Re: Bolt On Turbo Information

Postby MrEs » Sat Mar 08, 2008 6:54 pm

Stock WRX TD04
Mitsubishi TD04L-13T
(390cfm at 14.7psi, 200-275whp, Bolt-On)
This is the standard equipment turbocharger used on the Subaru Impreza WRX. It can be found on all the current model years from 2002-2007.
Expect to achieve full boost with the proper mods and a quality tune between 2500-3000rpms.




IHI VF Series
The numbering on both the VF turbos are for reference purposes and not necessarily indicative of its 'performance'. On GC8/GF8 WRX STi, the VF turbos have gone 'smaller' from VF22 to 23, 24, 28, 29 while the release of the New Age STi GDB saw the introduction of a new breed of VF turbos with a bigger compressor wheel namely, VF30, VF34, VF35 for example. The previous VF turbos (VF22,23,24,28,29) have been ball bearing cored while the later ones (VF30, VF35) are Divided Thrust Bearing type core, with the VF34 being a Ball Bearing.

IHI VF22
(455cfm at 18.0psi, 250-325whp, Bolt-On)
The VF22 has the largest potential for peak horsepower. In other words, in the IHI model range, the VF 22 supports the highest boost levels. With its significantly increased turbine housing, the VF22 turbo is capable of producing upwards of 310 whp* on an EJ20. The downside of this turbo is the older center cartridge design and larger compressor housing, which makes for slower spool up but more top-end than the other VF series turbos. This turbo is the best choice for those who are looking for loads of top end power. The top end power however, does not come without a cost. The VF22 spools significantly slower than the rest of the IHI models due to the larger P20 exhaust housing and is much less suited for daily driving than some of the other models. Although the largest VF series turbo, the VF22 is not quite optimal for stroked engines or those who wish to run more than 20PSI of boost. The VF22's compressor is rated at 35 lbs/minute. The VF22 was designed with the EJ20 in mind but because it has the biggest turbine in the IHI family it can be use on the EJ25 with a slight increase in performance. The VF22 is good for around a realistic 300 to 315 WHP on a 2.0L.
The IHI VF-22 turbo is the largest of the VF-series turbos.


IHI VF34
(440cfm at 18psi, 250-325whp, Bolt-On)
The VF34 is nearly identical to the VF30, with the same exhaust housing and compressor. However the VF34 goes back to the ball bearing design, and in doing so achieves full boost approximately 500RPM sooner than the comparable VF30. The VF34 is the most recent IHI design and as such costs slightly more than its counterpart. Top end performance and maximum output are identical to the 30. The VF34's compressor is rated at 35 lbs/minute but the turbo suffers from the same turbine restrictions found with the VF30. The VF34 was designed with the EJ20 in mind and will not have the same performance on an EJ25. The VF34 is good for around a realistic 290 to 305 WHP on a 2.0L.


IHI VF30
(435cfm at 18psi, 250-325whp, Bolt-On)
The VF30 delivers a very wide increase in torque over the standard TD-series turbos. It is important to note that the VF30 is not a roller bearing turbo. The VF30 is commonly considered the best bang for the buck turbo in the IHI VF series line. A relatively new model the VF30 features the same exhaust housing as the VF24, P18, but a larger compressor side similar to the VF22. The combination of these two parts results in increased output potential without the lag associated with the VF22. Although it doesn't offer the top end supremacy of the VF22, the VF30 is a great compromise between these unit and the quicker spooling models. The VF30's compressor wheel is rated at 35 lbs/minute, because the P18 turbine is used to help spool up the VF30's turbine creates a lot of back pressure which hurt top-end performance. The VF30 was designed with the EJ20 in mind and will not have the same performance on an EJ25. The VF30 is good for around a realistic 290 to 305 WHP on a 2.0L. The VF30 is not ball-bearing. It uses much more advanced aerodynamics than the VF22/23/24. It should spool much faster than the VF22/23/24, but flow less than the VF22, closer to a VF23.


IHI VF39
(435cfm, 250-325whp, Bolt-On)
The VF39 is a single scroll turbo used on USDM STI and latest 2.5L STIs released internationally. Smaller in output capacity than VF30, VF34 and VF22, the VF39's compressor is rated at the same 35 lbs/minute but the very small P18 turbine really chokes the 2.5L engine. In stock form the EJ25 with the VF39 has very little lag and that was the goal Subaru was looking for with the base package. The VF39 is good for around a realistic 285 to 300 WHP installed on a 2.0L. I would not recommend a VF series turbo to anyone looking to upgrade their STI but if you plan on keeping the VF39 you can expect to make between 300 to 330 WHP. If you are considering the VF39, we highly suggest checking out the VF43 as it is a better setup in the same class.

IHI VF43
(435cfm, 250-325whp, Bolt-On)
The IHI VF43 comes stock on the 2007 STi. It has almost identical features of the VF39 with a thrust bearing and a P18 exhaust housing, but the wastegate opening is larger to relieve boost creep issues. . It can be found on both base STI's and STI Limited's. The VF43 utilizes a thrust bearing design and the P18 exhaust housing. The difference between the VF43 and the VF39 used previously on STI's is the size of the wastegate. The VF43 has a larger wastegate designed to reduce boost creep issues.
Expect to achieve full boost with the proper mods and a quality tune between 3000-3500rpms. 2002-2005 WRX owners will need fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management is highly recommended for all vehicles that utilize this turbo aftermarket.

IHI VF36
(430cfm, 250-325whp, Modification Required)
This is the standard equipment turbocharger used on the JDM V8-V9 Subaru Impreza WRX STI Spec-C Type RA. The VF36 is a twin-scroll turbocharger that utilizes a ball bearing design, a P25 exhaust housing, and Titanium (possibly TiAl?) compressor wheel for improved spool. It is essentially a fast spooling VF34.
Expect to achieve full boost with the proper mods and a quality tune between 2800-3300rpms. 2002-2005 WRX owners will need fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management is highly recommended for all vehicles.

IHI VF37
(430cfm, 250-325whp, Modification Required)
This is the standard equipment turbocharger used on the JDM V8-V9 Subaru Impreza WRX STI. The VF37 is a twin-scroll turbocharger that utilizes a thrust bearing design and a P25 exhaust housing. It is essentially a fast spooling VF30.
Expect to achieve full boost with the proper mods and a quality tune between 2800-3300rpms. 2002-2005 WRX owners will need fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management is highly recommended for all vehicles.


IHI VF35
(425cfm, 250-325whp, Bolt-On)
This is the standard equipment turbocharger used on the JDM Subaru Impreza WRX. The VF35 is similar to the VF34. It utilizes the same compressor housing and the same compressor inducer size. The differences are in the divided thrust-bearing design and the P15 exhaust housing. This allows the VF35 to spool slightly quicker than the VF34 at the cost of less top-end performance.
Expect to achieve full boost with the proper mods and a quality tune between 2800-3300rpms. 2002-2005 WRX owners will need fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management is highly recommended for all vehicles.


IHI VF23
(425cfm at 18psi, 250-325whp, Bolt-On)
This is the standard equipment turbocharger used on the JDM Subaru Impreza WRX STi 22b. The VF23 is a ball bearing turbocharger that utilizes the P20 exhaust housing like the VF22. This housing is mated with the smaller compressor housing of the VF24 for fast response and excellent low and mid-range performance. It does not have the same top end power of the VF22, but spools up slightly quicker.
Expect to achieve full boost with the proper mods and a quality tune between 2800-3300rpms. 2002-2005 WRX owners will need fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management is highly recommended for all vehicles.


IHI VF24
(410cfm at 18psi, 250-325whp, Bolt-On)
This is the standard equipment turbocharger used on the JDM V4 Subaru Impreza WRX STi. This turbo shares its compressor housing with the VF23, however, this housing is mated with a smaller (P18) exhaust side. The smaller characteristics of this turbo allow it to provide ample bottom end power and quick spool. This turbo is very popular for Impreza's with automatic transmissions and Group-N rally cars.
Expect to achieve full boost with the proper mods and a quality tune between 2800-3300rpms. 2002-2005 WRX owners will need fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management is highly recommended for all vehicles.


IHI VF29
(410cfm at 18psi, 250-325whp, Bolt-On)
This is the standard equipment turbocharger on the JDM V6 Subaru Impreza WRX STi. The VF29 is nearly identical to the VF24, with the same compressor and exhaust housings. However, the compressor wheel in the VF29 has been changed slightly. The changes made to the compressor wheel in this model are generally viewed as improvements, and as such, this unit is typically chosen over the VF24. Has a different location for the pressure hose on the wastegate actuator.
Expect to achieve full boost with the proper mods and a quality tune between 2900-3300rpms. 2002-2005 WRX owners will need fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management is highly recommended for all vehicles.




16G TD05H + 18G & 20G
There are several versions of the 16G TD05H. The three that you are most likely to find are the Standard 16G, Big 16G and Super 16G.
The exact specifications are going to vary on the turbo builder (e.g. GTPumps, Deadbolt, Turbochargers.com, Forced Performance, Blouch etc.)

The Standard 16G TD05H
~(520cfm, 33.5 lb/min, 275-330whp, Bolt-On)
The Standard 16G's compressor is rated at 33.5 lbs/minute which is slightly smaller that the VF22 but the Standard 16G comes with 7cm turbine housing which flows better than the VF22's P20. The better flow allows the Standard 16G to produce number close to the VF22. The 16G will produce between 285 and 300 WHP on a 2.0L.

The Big 16G TD05H (GTPumps GTPS01)
~(525cfm, 34 lb/min, 275-340whp, Bolt-On)
The Big 16G's compressor is rated at 34 lbs/minute which is only slightly better than the Standard 16G. The difference is how much faster the flow starts to come on with the Big 16G over the Standard 16G. The ability to move more air sooner makes the Big 16G more responsive during on-boost, off-boost, on-boost transitions. The Standard 16G will spool to full boost quicker but the Big 16G has better recovery once you drop below full boost. The Big 16G will produce between 295 and 315 WHP on a 2.0L.

The Super 16G TD05H
~(585cfm, 37 lb/min, 275-370whp, Bolt-On)
The Super 16G is just what it says, super. It's compressor is rated at 37 lbs/minute and it is still only a 16G. This is the super flyweight contender on the Mitsubishi line. Mitsubishi has made several special versions of this turbo for motorsports applications. It's will spool up slower than any of the other 16G's BUT once the boost hits all is forgiven. The Super 16G will produce between 310 and 325 WHP on a 2.0L.

18G TD05H
~ (590cfm, 39 lb/min, 275-390whp, Bolt-On)
The 18G is a very versitile turbo. It is rated at 39 lbs/minute and has very good spool up. The key to this turbo is the balance between size and response. The 18G TD05H is well suited to a 2.0L engine and has the capacity to max out all of the non-built EJ20's. Stock STI EJ25's love the 18G and I feel that this is the turbo the car should have come with from the factory. On a 2.5L the spool up is amazing! The 18G TD05H will produce between 315 and 330 WHP on a 2.0L. On a 2.5L the 18G TD05H will make between 325 and 350 WHP.

18G TD06H
~ (40 lb/min, 325-400whp, Bolt-On)
The 18G TD06H has the same compressor as the 18G TD05H but a larger turbine wheel. The larger wheel adds some lag but helps hold boost better in the upper part of the RPM range. On a 2.0L the 18G TD06H will be laggy but will have a pretty insane rush up top. I woulds expect to see 320 to 340 WHP on a 2.0L. On a 2.5L the bigger turbine is a blessing. The 2.5L gets maximum benefit from the TDo6H wheel and should be good for between 335 to 360 WHP.

20G TD05H (GTPumps GTPS02)
~(640cfm, 44.5 lb/min, 325-440whp, Bolt-On)
Here is where is starts to get really good. The 20G TD05H is probably the best all around turbo that you will come across for a street car. On a 2.0L this sucker is going to be laggy but once that 44.5 lbs/minute compressor gets going you better be hanging on. 335 to 350 WHP shouldn't be out of the question for this turbo on a 2.0L. The 20G TD05H on a 2.5L is the start of the march to the 400 WHP barrie. On an STI 2.5L the 20G TD05H is good for 345 to 375 WHP.

20G TD06H
~(44 lb/min, 325-440whp, Bolt-On)
The same as with the 18G the 20G family is available with an optional TD06H turbine wheel. This is the wheel that really pushes the performance of the 20G to the next level. On a 2.0L I am almost positive that this turbo would be really laggy. The turbine is just not well suited to the EJ20. expect to make 340 to 370 WHP on a 2.0L but the power will come on really late. I would only put this turbo on a 2.0L is you intent to drag race it. Now the STI 2.5L is a different story. The 20G TD06H is one of my favorite turbos for this car. The added .5L really helps to offset the bigger turbine and takes full advantage of it. The 20G TD06H should be good for 360 to 390 WHP on a 2.5L.

20G TD06H(SL2) (GTPumps GTPS03)
~(44 lb/min, 325-440whp, Bolt-On)
The TD06SL2 is a completely different beast to the regular TD06. It was designed by Mitsubishi for Trust and has a very light wheel so spools up very quickly. This is the second generation one which has clipped wheels and a few other tricky bits. Expect to get similar power levels as with using a normal 20G-TD06 but expect to make the power a little easier and with less lag.






AVO
All AVO ball-bearing turbochargers are water-cooled and have been designed to perform in the harshest conditions possible, and have been tested in them as well. High nickel content housings ensure our turbos will go the distance. Another key performance points is the Garrett® compressor and turbine wheels, which are lightweight with knife-like edges for unmatched spooling, yet built strong for reliability

AVO 320
(465cfm at 17.5psi, 275-325whp, Bolt-On)
AVO's 320hp ball bearing turbo, the 'Edge Series', is the ultimate in high-flow/high-response bolt-on solutions. S-Type is our street turbo, designed for both superior spool-up over stock and additional top-end power. The absolute best bang for your buck thanks to an enormous research and development program. 2002-2005 WRX owners will need fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management is highly recommended for all vehicles.

AVO 400S
(580cfm at 17.5psi, 275-400whp, Bolt-On)
AVO's 400hp ball bearing turbo, the 'Edge Series', is the ultimate in high-flow/high-response bolt-on solutions. The S-Type is our dual duty race and street turbo, designed for a blend of high response and devastating power. The absolute best bang for your buck thanks to an enormous research and development program. 2002-2005 WRX owners will need fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management is highly recommended for all vehicles.

AVO 400L
(580cfm at 17.5psi, 320-440whp, Bolt-On)
AVO's 400L ball bearing turbo is part of the 'Edge Series' family, the ultimate in high-flow/high-response bolt-on solutions. This turbo has been optimized for high-response performance on 2.5-liter motors, and as great solution for 2.2-liter stroker kit motors. It is designed for both superior spool-up over stock and additional top-end power. 2002-2005 WRX owners will need fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management is highly recommended for all vehicles.

AVO 450
(630cfm at 20psi, 345-460whp, Bolt-On)
AVO's 450hp ball bearing turbo , the 'Edge Series', is the ultimate in high-flow/high-response bolt-on solutions for your WRX or STi 2.0-liter and 2.5-liter. Capable of up to 30psi of boost and able to hit peak boost at 3600rpm on a 2.5-liter, it has all the response and overhead that you can dream of. The R-Type is our track and circuit beast, designed for a blend of high response and devastating power. The absolute best bang for your buck thanks to an enormous research and development program. Fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management should be considered necessary for all vehicles.

AVO 500
(740cfm at 23psi, 350-520whp, Bolt-On)
AVO's 500hp ball bearing turbo , the 'Edge Series', is the ultimate in high-flow/high-response bolt-on solutions for your WRX or STi 2.0-liter and 2.5-liter. Capable of up to 30psi of boost and able to hit peak boost at 4400rpm on a 2.5-liter, it has all the response and overhead that you can dream of. The D-Type is our 1/4 mile beast, designed for a blend of high response and devastating power. The absolute best bang for your buck thanks to an enormous research and development program. Fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management should be considered necessary for all vehicles.

AVO 550/600
If you think that these turbo's are suitable for your application i suggest you speak with AVO directly




APS
APS SR30
(490cfm at 22psi, 275-325whp, Bolt-On)
The APS SR30 turbocharger is an ideal turbocharger for the person who is chasing impeccable drivability as well as significantly improved power and torque - with the capacity to produce up to 340bhp. The SR30 also offers a very broad range of operation at high efficiency values.
2002-2005 WRX owners will need fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management is highly recommended for all vehicles.

APS SR40
(595cfm at 14.7psi, 300-440whp, Bolt-On)
The SR40 turbocharger is a specialist performance turbocharger with performance characteristics to suit modified WRX engines of 2.0 - 2.2 L capacity. The SR40 turbocharger has the capacity to supply air to produce 440 bhp with good turbocharger response characteristics.
2002-2005 WRX owners will need fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management is highly recommended for all vehicles.

APS SR56
(56 lb/min, 400-550whp, Bolt-On)
The SR56 is the choice for the performance enthusiast who wants the ultimate in engine power whilst maintaining stock turbocharger orientation. Ideally suited to a heavily modified Subaru engine of 2.2 - 2.5 L capacity. With flow capacity to produce 500 hp at 14.5 psi and 550 hp at 22 psi, this turbocharger is for the serious street/strip racer.
Addendum: 3” SR56 = SR57.
Fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management should be considered necessary for all vehicles.



Power Enterprise
PE1818
(515cfm at 22psi, 275-350whp, Bolt-On)
The PE 1818 Turbo is a high-performance turbo developed by Power Enterprise. The turbine and compressor housings are used from IHI and uses Power Enterprises custom twin-ball bearing center cartridge. This turbo is able to produce power over 410+ bhp. This turbo has a smaller housing then the PE 1820 which gives it less turbo lag and makes it more street-able. Full boost can be achieved by 4000 rpm.
2002-2005 WRX owners will need fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management is highly recommended for all vehicles.

PE1820
(595cfm, 325-375whp, Bolt-On)
The PE 1820 Turbo is a high-performance turbo developed by Power Enterprise. The turbine and compressor housings are used from IHI and uses Power Enterprises custom twin-ball bearing center cartridge. This turbo is able to produce power over 440+ bhp. This turbo has a larger turbine housing than the PE 1818 which gives it more turbo lag and is more suited for race applications.
Fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management should be considered necessary for all vehicles.


GReddy
GReddy TZ518Z (300-375whp, Bolt-On)
GReddy had zeroed in on a T518Z turbo, a fresh unit from GReddy's parent company in Japan. Developed by Mitsubishi the 8cm^2 compressor housing that gets maximum thrust from the 18G wheel.
2002-2005 WRX owners will need fuel upgrades for this turbocharger and proper engine management is highly recommended for all vehicles.
Info
Purchase $1550


Sources:
* Mainly http://forums.nasioc.com/forums/showthr ... ?t=1141476" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
* Lots of other sites
Denis AKA 'S', powered by:
  • Adam @ Tuspeed - http://www.tuspeed.com
  • Vin & Steve @ Subaru STi Docklands
  • Ricky @ Tyrepower Essendon

MrEs
Ex-Webmaster of 4 years
Ex-Webmaster of 4 years
Posts: 8682
Joined: Tue Jan 25, 2005 2:02 am
Location: 03 rexy

Re: Common Turbo Information and FAQ

Postby MrEs » Sat Mar 08, 2008 7:04 pm

Turbo Tech 101 ( Basic )

How a Turbo System Works
Engine power is proportional to the amount of air and fuel that can get into the cylinders. All things being equal, larger engines flow more air and as such will produce more power. If we want our small engine to perform like a big engine, or simply make our bigger engine produce more power, our ultimate objective is to draw more air into the cylinder. By installing a Garrett turbocharger, the power and performance of an engine can be dramatically increased.

So how does a turbocharger get more air into the engine? Let us first look at the schematic below:
Image

1 Compressor Inlet
2 Compressor Discharge
3 Charge air cooler (CAC)
4 Intake Valve
5 Exhaust Valve
6 Turbine Inlet
7 Turbine Discharge

The components that make up a typical turbocharger system are:

The air filter (not shown) through which ambient air passes before entering the compressor (1)
The air is then compressed which raises the air’s density (mass / unit volume) (2)
Many turbocharged engines have a charge air cooler (aka intercooler) (3) that cools the compressed air to further increase its density and to increase resistance to detonation
After passing through the intake manifold (4), the air enters the engine’s cylinders, which contain a fixed volume. Since the air is at elevated density, each cylinder can draw in an increased mass flow rate of air. Higher air mass flow rate allows a higher fuel flow rate (with similar air/fuel ratio). Combusting more fuel results in more power being produced for a given size or displacement
After the fuel is burned in the cylinder it is exhausted during the cylinder’s exhaust stroke in to the exhaust manifold (5)
The high temperature gas then continues on to the turbine (6). The turbine creates backpressure on the engine which means engine exhaust pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure
A pressure and temperature drop occurs (expansion) across the turbine (7), which harnesses the exhaust gas’ energy to provide the power necessary to drive the compressor

Image
The components of a turbocharger

The layout of the turbocharger in a given application is critical to a properly performing system. Intake and exhaust plumbing is often driven primarily by packaging constraints. We will explore exhaust manifolds in more detail in subsequent tutorials; however, it is important to understand the need for a compressor bypass valve (commonly referred to as a Blow-Off valve) on the intake tract and a Wastegates for the exhaust flow.


Blow-Off (Bypass) Valves

The Blow-Off valve (BOV) is a pressure relief device on the intake tract to prevent the turbo’s compressor from going into surge. The BOV should be installed between the compressor discharge and the throttle body, preferably downstream of the charge air cooler (if equipped). When the throttle is closed rapidly, the airflow is quickly reduced, causing flow instability and pressure fluctuations. These rapidly cycling pressure fluctuations are the audible evidence of surge. Surge can eventually lead to thrust bearing failure due to the high loads associated with it.
Blow-Off valves use a combination of manifold pressure signal and spring force to detect when the throttle is closed. When the throttle is closed rapidly, the BOV vents boost in the intake tract to atmosphere to relieve the pressure; helping to eliminate the phenomenon of surge.


Wastegates:
On the exhaust side, a Wastegates provides us a means to control the boost pressure of the engine. Some commercial diesel applications do not use a Wastegates at all. This type of system is called a free-floating turbocharger. However, the vast majority of gasoline performance applications require a Wastegates. There are two (2) configurations of Wastegates, internal or external. Both internal and external Wastegates provide a means to bypass exhaust flow from the turbine wheel. Bypassing this energy (e.g. exhaust flow) reduces the power driving the turbine wheel to match the power required for a given boost level. Similar to the BOV, the Wastegates uses boost pressure and spring force to regulate the flow bypassing the turbine.

Image
Internal Wastegates are built into the turbine housing and consist of a “flapper” valve, crank arm, rod end, and pneumatic actuator. It is important to connect this actuator only to boost pressure; i.e. it is not designed to handle vacuum and as such should not be referenced to an intake manifold.


Image
External Wastegates are added to the exhaust plumbing on the exhaust manifold or header. The advantage of external Wastegates is that the bypassed flow can be reintroduced into the exhaust stream further downstream of the turbine. This tends to
improve the turbine’s performance. On racing applications, this Wastegated exhaust flow can be vented directly to atmosphere.



Journal Bearings vs. Ball Bearings
The journal bearing has long been the brawn of the turbocharger, however a ball-bearing cartridge is now an affordable technology advancement that provides significant performance improvements to the turbocharger. Ball bearing innovation began as a result of work with the Garrett Motorsports group for several racing series where it received the term the ‘cartridge ball bearing’. The cartridge is a single sleeve system that contains a set of angular contact ball bearings on either end, whereas the traditional bearing system contains a set of journal bearings and a thrust bearing.

Turbo Response – When driving a vehicle with the cartridge ball bearing turbocharger, you will find exceptionally crisp and strong throttle response. Garrett Ball Bearing turbochargers spool up 15% faster than traditional journal bearings. This produces an improved response that can be converted to quicker 0-60 mph speed. In fact, some professional drivers of Garrett ball-bearing turbocharged engines report that they feel like they are driving a big, normally aspirated engine.
Tests run on CART turbos have shown that ball-bearings have up to half of the power consumption of traditional bearings. The result is faster time to boost which translates into better drivability and acceleration.
On-engine performance is also better in the steady-state for the Garrett Cartridge Ball Bearing
Image


Reduced Oil Flow – The ball bearing design reduces the required amount of oil required to provide adequate lubrication. This lower oil volume reduces the chance for seal leakage. Also, the ball bearing is more tolerant of marginal lube conditions, and diminishes the possibility of turbocharger failure on engine shut down.

Image
Journal Bearings

Image
Ball Bearings


Improved Rotor Dynamics and Durability
Ball-bearing cartridges offer much better damping and control over shaft motion, allowing enhanced reliability for both everyday and extreme driving conditions. Too much shaft motion can lead to an early failure of the turbocharger, and is a leading cause of early failure with journal bearing turbochargers. In addition, the opposed angular contact bearing cartridge eliminates the need for the thrust bearing - commonly a weak link in the turbo bearing system.


Alternative Ball Bearing Options – Another option one will find is a hybrid ball bearing. This consists of replacing only the compressor side journal bearing with a single angular contact ball bearing. Since the single bearing can only take thrust in one direction, a thrust bearing is still necessary and drag in the turbine side journal bearing is unchanged. With the Garrett ball bearing cartridge the rotor-group is entirely supported by the ball bearings, maximizing efficiency, performance, and durability.



Water Cooling
Following a hot shutdown of a turbocharger, heat soak begins. This means that the heat radiating off the hot engine head, exhaust manifold, and turbine housing finds it way to the center housing of the turbo, raising its temperature. Extreme temperatures in the center housing can result in oil coking, another cause of turbocharger failure. To minimize the effects of heat soak-back, most modern day turbo's use water-cooled turbo center housings. These use coolant from the engine to act as a heat sink after engine shutdown, preventing the oil from coking. The water lines utilize a thermal siphon effect to reduce the peak heat soak-back temperatures after you turn the car off.


Sources:
* http://www.dieselbombers.com/general-di ... aring.html
* http://www.turbobygarrett.com/turbobyga ... ch101.html
* http://www.avoturboworld.com/pdf/AVO_wr ... argers.pdf
* http://www.turbodynamics.co.uk/ball_bearing.htm
* Various other
Denis AKA 'S', powered by:
  • Adam @ Tuspeed - http://www.tuspeed.com
  • Vin & Steve @ Subaru STi Docklands
  • Ricky @ Tyrepower Essendon

MrEs
Ex-Webmaster of 4 years
Ex-Webmaster of 4 years
Posts: 8682
Joined: Tue Jan 25, 2005 2:02 am
Location: 03 rexy

Re: Common Turbo Information and FAQ

Postby MrEs » Sat Mar 08, 2008 7:11 pm

Turbo Flow Rates @ 14.7 PSI
Stock Turbo 360 CFM at 14.7 PSI
IHI VF 25 370 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- estimated
IHI VF 26 390 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- estimated
T3 60 trim 400 CFM at 14.7 PSI
IHI VF 27 400 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- estimated
IHI VF 24/28/29 410 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- estimated
========= 422 CFM max flow for a 2 Liter at .85 VE pressure ratio 2.0 (14.7 PSI) 7000 RPM =======
IHI VF 23 423 CFM at 14.7 PSI
FP STOCK HYBRID 430 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- derived from HP potential listed on web
IHI VF-30 435 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- estimated
SR 30 435 CFM at 14.7 PSI
IHI VF-22 440 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- refigured
T04E 40 trim 460 CFM at 14.7 PSI
========= 464 CFM max flow for a 2.2 Liter at .85 VE pressure ratio 2.0 (14.7 PSI) 7000 rpm =======
PE1818 490 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- estimated from max flow numbers
Small 16G 505 CFM at 14.7 PSI
ION Spec (stg 0) 525 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- per vendor post 12-27-2002
========= 526 CFM max flow for a 2.5 Liter at .85 VE pressure ratio 2.0 (14.7 PSI) 7000 RPM =======
Large 16G 550 CFM at 14.7 PSI
SR 40 595 CFM at 14.7 PSI
18G 600 CFM at 14.7 PSI
PE 1820 630 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- estimated from max flow numbers
20G 650 CFM at 14.7 PSI
SR 50 710 CFM at 14.7 PSI
GT-30 725 CFM at 14.7 PSI
60-1 725 CFM at 14.7 PSI
GT-35R 820 CFM at 14.7 PSI
T72 920 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- Note you would have to spin a 2.0 L
engine at about 14,000 rpm to flow this much air.


Turbo Flow Rates @ 18-22 PSI
IHI VF 25 395 CFM at 18 PSI <--- estimated
IHI VF 26 400 CFM at 18 PSI <--- estimated
T3 60 trim 410 CFM at 20 PSI
IHI VF 27 420 CFM at 18 PSI <--- estimated
IHI VF 24/28/29 425 CFM at 18 PSI <--- estimated
IHI VF 23 430 CFM at 18 PSI <--- estimated
IHI VF-30 460 CFM at 18.0 PSI <--- estimate based on trap speeds of cars running this turbo
AVO 320HP 465 CFM at 17.5 PSI
T04E 40 trim 465 CFM at 22 PSI
FP STOCK HYBRID 490 CFM at 18.0 PSI
IHI VF-22 490 CFM at 18.0 PSI <--- refigured
SR 30 490 CFM at 22 PSI
Small 16G 490 CFM at 22 PSI
ION Spec (stg 0) 500 CFM at 19 PSI <--- per vendor post 12-27-2002
PE1818 515 CFM at 22 PSI <--- estimated from manufactures rated max power
Large 16G 520 CFM at 22 PSI <--- upgraded flow some on review of compressor map
========= 526 CFM max flow for a 2 Liter at .85 VE pressure ratio 2.5 (22 PSI) 7000 rpm =======

========= 578 CFM max flow for a 2.2 Liter at .85 VE pressure ratio 2.5 (22 PSI) 7000 rpm =======
HKS GT2835 400 hp 580 CFM at 22 PSI
MRT 400 580 CFM at 16 PSI <--- added
AVO 400HP 580 CFM at 17.5 PSI
MRT 450 650 CFM at 19 PSI <--- added
AVO 450HP 650 CFM at 20.0 PSI
SR 40 650 CFM at 22 PSI <--- added, got lost some how in editing
========= 658 CFM max flow for a 2.5 Liter at .85 VE pressure ratio 2.5 (22 PSI) 7000 rpm =======
HKS GT3037 460 hp 670 CFM at 22 PSI
PE 1820 680 CFM at 22 PSI <--- estimated from manufactures rated max power
20G 695 CFM at 20.0 PSI <--- added
HKS GT3040 490 hp 710 CFM at 22 PSI
AVO 500HP 725 CFM at 23.0 PSI
SR 50 770 CFM at 22 PSI
GT-30 790 CFM at 22 PSI
60-1 800 CFM at 22 PSI
HKS GT3240 570 hp 830 CFM at 22 PSI
GT-35R 880 CFM at 22 PSI
T72 1000 CFM at 22 PSI <--- note you would have to run a 2.0 L engine
at >40 PSI boost to flow this much air

Conversions used where I had control over conversion factors:
1 HP approx equals 1.45 CFM
1 CFM approx equals 0.0745 lb of air/min
0.108 Lb/min approx equals 1 hp
1 Meter cubed/sec = 35.314 CFS = 2118.867 CFM
1 KG/sec = 132 lbs/min approx equals 1771.812 CFM

power coversions:
1 PS = 0.9859 HP = 75 Kgf m/sec
1.3405 HP = 1 KW
1 HP = 746 watts

source: http://forums.nasioc.com/forums/showthr ... did=278517
Denis AKA 'S', powered by:
  • Adam @ Tuspeed - http://www.tuspeed.com
  • Vin & Steve @ Subaru STi Docklands
  • Ricky @ Tyrepower Essendon

MrEs
Ex-Webmaster of 4 years
Ex-Webmaster of 4 years
Posts: 8682
Joined: Tue Jan 25, 2005 2:02 am
Location: 03 rexy

Re: Common Turbo Information and FAQ

Postby MrEs » Sat Mar 08, 2008 7:17 pm

Estimated turbo spool figures
* THIS WOULD DEPEND ON A LOT OF THINGS AND ONLY TO BE TAKEN AS VERY ROUGH NUMBER.

Here are some figures but they are not all precise

Turbo______________________Full Spool_____________Avg Whp_________Max Whp

Td 04.................................. ~2700.......................150 - 185
VF 34.................................. ~3200.......................250 - 270..............300
VF 23.................................. ~3300........................unsure
VF 43.................................. ~3300....................... ~290whp
VF 30.................................. ~3500.......................240 - 270..............
VF 39.................................. ~3500 ......................250 - 270..............
VF 22.................................. ~3600 ..........................265 - 290..............
Small 16g.............................3500 - 3700.......................260 - 280..............
Big 16g................................3500 - 3700.......................260 - 290..............
18g.....................................3750 - 4000........................280 - 310+............
20g.....................................3800 - 4200........................310++................. .

Source: http://forums.nasioc.com/forums/showthr ... ?t=1084275
Denis AKA 'S', powered by:
  • Adam @ Tuspeed - http://www.tuspeed.com
  • Vin & Steve @ Subaru STi Docklands
  • Ricky @ Tyrepower Essendon

MrEs
Ex-Webmaster of 4 years
Ex-Webmaster of 4 years
Posts: 8682
Joined: Tue Jan 25, 2005 2:02 am
Location: 03 rexy

Re: Common Turbo Information and FAQ

Postby MrEs » Sat Mar 08, 2008 7:25 pm

Standard Turbo Usages in Subaru's

Application Engine, OE Part No, Turbo Model, Turbo Brand, Turbo Part Number
FORESTER (04- ) (SG) TD04 MHI Turbo 49377 04300
FORESTER (98-02) (SF) 58T 14412AA240 TF035HM-14T-4 MHI Turbo 49135 04600
* The Jap-spec 97-02 Foresters have the 58T 14412AA140 TD04L-13T-6 MHI Turbo 49377 04100 and 04200 I believe
Impreza ('98) - 14412AA140 TD04H MHI Turbo 49377 04100
IMPREZA GT 58T - TD04L MHI Turbo 49377 04200
IMPREZA GT555 58T 14411AA091 TD05H-16G MHI Turbo 49178 06300
IMPREZA GT555 (97- ) 58T 14412AA092 TD05H-16G MHI Turbo 49178 06310
Impreza WRX - - TD04 MHI Turbo 49377 06200
Impreza WRX - NB ('00) - - TD04H MHI Turbo 49377 04300
IMPREZE/ LEGACY (90- ) EJ20 14411AA080 RHB52XW IHI Turbo VB180039 VF12
LEGACY (SEQUENTIAL T/C) EJ20 14411AA114/ 5 RHF4B IHI Turbo VC650015 VF13
LEGACY (91- ) EJ20 14411AA030 RHB52XW IHI Turbo VG130075 VF8
LEGACY (SEQUENTIAL T/C) EJ20 14409AA002..6 RHF4B IHI Turbo VD650012 VF14
LEGACY (SEQUENTIAL T/C) EJ20 G/E 14409AA060 RHF4B IHI Turbo VA660045 VF32
LEGACY (SEQUENTIAL T/C) EJ20 G/E 14411AA350/ 1 RHF4B IHI Turbo VB420047 VF31
RX TURBO (85-90) EA82 14411AA011 RHB52EW IHI Turbo NN130038 VF3
RX TURBO (87- ) EA82 14411AA012 RHB52EW IHI Turbo VB130056 VF6
STI (LIMITED EDITION) EJ20G/E 14411AA321 RHF5HB IHI Turbo VA660060 VF34
STI VER.III EJ20 14412AA172 RHF5HB IHI Turbo VA660043 VF2B
STI VER.IV EJ20 14412AA200 RHF5B IHI Turbo VA660050 VF24
STI VER.VI (99- ) EJ20 144123AA250 RHF5HB IHI Turbo VA660058 VF28
WRX STI ('00) EJ20 14411AA370 RHF55 IHI Turbo VA440017 VF30
WRX VER. III EJ20 14411AA142/ 3 RHF5HB IHI Turbo VA660033 VF22
WRX VER.VI EJ20 14411AA270/ 300 RHF5HB IHI Turbo VA660059 VF29

Source: http://www.i-club.com/forums/showthread.php?t=39411
Denis AKA 'S', powered by:
  • Adam @ Tuspeed - http://www.tuspeed.com
  • Vin & Steve @ Subaru STi Docklands
  • Ricky @ Tyrepower Essendon

MrEs
Ex-Webmaster of 4 years
Ex-Webmaster of 4 years
Posts: 8682
Joined: Tue Jan 25, 2005 2:02 am
Location: 03 rexy

Re: Common Turbo Information and FAQ

Postby MrEs » Sat Mar 08, 2008 7:28 pm

IHI Compressor Flow Rates
* I dont know what most of these are in relation to actual automotive turbo's but they are all the compressors that IHI make... ?
But i'm sure some more googling will get more the rest of the answers :)
Image
RHF4 = VF13, VF14, VF32, VF31
RHF5 = VF23, VF24, VF28, VF29
RHF55 = VF30, VF34, VF35, VF39, VF22, (Also PE1818, PE1820)

Image

Image
Denis AKA 'S', powered by:
  • Adam @ Tuspeed - http://www.tuspeed.com
  • Vin & Steve @ Subaru STi Docklands
  • Ricky @ Tyrepower Essendon

User avatar
05-RSX
S204 Driver
Posts: 6676
Joined: Sat Nov 12, 2005 10:11 am
Location: Melbourne

Re: Common Turbo Information and FAQ

Postby 05-RSX » Mon Mar 10, 2008 11:38 am

some more:
(hosted on my photobucket, originally ripped from an MRT article - feel free to rehost if you want Es ;) )

Image

MrEs: Rehosted locally :cheer:
Campbell.
Team Wagon.

User avatar
pete_mac
Impreza RS Driver
Posts: 163
Joined: Tue Mar 01, 2005 9:06 pm

Re: Common Turbo Information and FAQ

Postby pete_mac » Mon Mar 10, 2008 12:55 pm

MrEs wrote:Standard Turbo Usages in Subaru's

Application Engine, OE Part No, Turbo Model, Turbo Brand, Turbo Part Number
FORESTER - - TD04 MHI Turbo 49377 04300
FORESTER (98- ) 58T 14412AA140 TD04L-13T-6 MHI Turbo 49377 04100
FORESTER (99- ) 58T 14412AA240 TF035HM-14T-4 MHI Turbo 49135 04600



That should read:

FORESTER (04- ) (SG) TD04 MHI Turbo 49377 04300
FORESTER (98-02) (SF) 58T 14412AA240 TF035HM-14T-4 MHI Turbo 49135 04600

The Jap-spec 97-02 Foresters have the 58T 14412AA140 TD04L-13T-6 MHI Turbo 49377 04100 and 04200 I believe

MrEs - Thanks mate, added that back in

User avatar
Random Dude
Forum Over-Moderator
Forum Over-Moderator
Posts: 3391
Joined: Thu Jan 12, 2006 5:13 pm
Location: Hiding in your blind spot...

Re: Common Turbo Information and FAQ

Postby Random Dude » Wed Apr 02, 2008 6:12 pm

Added some more info (from http://www.ztechz.net/id4.html)

TD (Mitsubishi) Series comparisons:

Image

Mitsubishi uses TD04, TD05, TD06, ...to designates turbo housing.

For example, TD05H-16G 7cm^2 is a turbo with,

*
TD05 turbine housing with 'H' style turbine wheel. There are S, SH, H... style of turbine wheel/housing.
*
16G compressor wheel. 16 is the size of the wheel, 1.83 inducer, 2.37 exducer. There is no direct correlation between MHI designation and actual physical size of the compressor wheel. G is the style of wheel (uneven height of blades). C, B, T style wheel's blades have the same height. Blades are equally spaced, but the number and pitch of the blades vary between models.
*
8cm^2 is referring to exhaust discharge area in the turbine housing. More specifically, it is the smallest cross-sectional area of the scroll, turbine housing. Very similar to Garrett turbo's A/R. The smaller number means faster spool-up but more back pressure at higher rpm. Bigger number means longer spool up but less back pressure, thus more top end power.

Greddy modifies Mitsu turbos. I don't have any published specs for Greddy turbos and i have not taken any time to measure them. It's possible some of turbos have different specs from Mistubishi. Also, both Greddy TD05 and TD06 use 3 bolt turbine flange where as Mistubishi's uses 4 bolt flanges.


Edit MrEs:
Compressor housings are classified as :
TDO4, TDO5, TDO6, TDO7...

Compressor wheels are classified as:
14T, small 16g, big 16g, EVO III 16g, 18G, 20g, 25G...

Turbine Housings are:
7cm, 8cm ...

Bearing Housings:
wet, or dry

Turbine Wheels are:
TDO4HL, TDO4H, TDO4L, TDO5, TDO5H, TDO6, TDO6H, TDO6SH, TDO6L, TDO7...
Brenton

MrEs
Ex-Webmaster of 4 years
Ex-Webmaster of 4 years
Posts: 8682
Joined: Tue Jan 25, 2005 2:02 am
Location: 03 rexy

Re: Common Turbo Information and FAQ

Postby MrEs » Sun Oct 26, 2008 4:20 pm

Some more turbo basics

Turbo operational components
The graphic below (adapted from Garrett Turbochargers) identifies the operational components and the air flow path of the compressor section of a turbocharger. The turbocharger's turbine and compressor wheels are located at each end of the same shaft, which is supported in the middle by a bearing housing. When the exhaust gas turns the turbine wheel, called the rotor, the compressor wheel rotates at the same speed. When the compressor wheel, called the impeller, rotates fast enough, it draws air from the atmosphere in through the inlet. As this air proceeds into the impeller it is accelerated outward (radially) away from the center of the wheel. When this accelerated air enters the vaneless diffuser part of the compressor housing, the velocity decreases and the static pressure of the air increases.

Image
Here is the technical version:
using centrifugal force, the impeller imparts a high kinetic energy to the air, which is subsequently decelerated in the diffuser with a consequent recovery of static pressure from the kinetic energy. This process increases both the air temperature and pressure according to the rules of adiabatic compression and the limitations of the compressor's design. The compressed air is discharged into the intercooler system.


compressor flow map
The performance of an impeller in a particular housing is quantified using a "compressor flow map", an example of which is shown below.
Image
On the compressor flow map, the horizontal axis represents the amount of uncompressed air entering one turbo, either as volume flow or as mass flow. The vertical axis represents the amount of air compression that occurs inside the compressor; it is the ratio of the air pressure at the discharge opening (P2C) to the air pressure at the inlet (P1C). The curved lines with labels at one end such as 106,000 are the rotational speed (in rpm) of the compressor wheel. The elliptical curves with labels such as 60% represent the efficiency of the compressor, or how well the compressor achieves pure adiabatic heating of the air(higher numbers are better and mean less extra heating of the air).



Wheel Speed
The wheel rotational speed, in revolutions per minute (rpm), at various values is shown on the flow map as a function of air flow rate and pressure ratio. When air flow is held constant (a vertical line on the flow map), faster rotation means a higher pressure ratio. When the PR is constant (a horizontal line on the flow map), faster rotation generally means more air flow. However, air flow does not appreciably increase after the outer tips of the compressor wheel are moving faster than the speed of sound. When the air flow reaches sonic speeds, the diffuser becomes choked and only very small increases in flow rate are possible even with large increases in wheel speed. Larger compressor wheels have maximum rotational speeds less than smaller wheels because of this limitation.

On the flow map above, the air flow regime to the right of the dotted line marking maximum wheel speed is called the choke area. The choke area is almost never noted on a flow map. To determine the choke area, you can drop a vertical line from about where the fastest wheel speed curve ends on the right side of the map. This vertical line is the approximate maximum air flow the compressor is capable of, regardless of efficiency or pressure ratio.

As can be seen near the lower left corner of the flow map, there is no significant air compression at wheel speeds below a certain rpm. A properly designed and matched turbine section is required to keep the compressor wheel spinning between its minimum and maximum speeds for the engine the turbocharger is used on and the desired boost levels. The turbine wheel is driven by the heat energy and velocity of the exhaust stream. Rotor speed and efficiency are higher when the pressure gradient across the turbine section is higher. How fast the rotor changes speeds is determined by the inertia of the turbine and compressor wheel assembly and the A/R ratio of the turbine housing. Either higher inertia (larger or heavier wheels) or higher A/R (the ratio of the turbine inlet at its narrowest point to the distance from this point to the shaft) will increase the time it takes the turbine and compressor wheels to "spool up", or increase in speed. Compressor output can be limited to a certain pressure level by controlling the speed of the turbine wheel with a wastegate, which diverts exhaust gas around the rotor.


Surge Limit
To the left of the surge limit line on the flow map is the surge area where compressor operation can be unstable. Typically, surge occurs after the throttle plate is closed while the turbocharger is spinning rapidly and the by-pass valve does not release the sudden increase in pressure due to the backed-up air. During surge, the back-pressure build-up at the discharge opening of the compressor reduces the air flow. If the air flow falls below a certain point, the compressor wheel (the impeller) will loose its "grip" on the air. Consequently, the air in the compressor stops being propelled forward by the impeller and is simply spinning around with the wheel, which is still being rotated by the exhaust gas passing through the turbine section. When this happens, the pressure build-up at the discharge opening forces air back through the impeller causing a reversal of air flow through the compressor. As the back pressure eventually decreases, the impeller again begins to function properly and air flows out of the compressor in the correct direction. This sudden air-flow reversal in the compressor can occur several times and may be heard as a repetitive "WHEw Whew whew" noise if the surge is mild (such as when the by-pass valve is set a little too tight) to a loud banging noise when surge is severe. Surge should be prevented at all costs because it not only slows the turbocharger wheels so that they must be spooled back up again but because it can be very damaging to the bushings or bearings and seals in the center section.

Below is another example of a flow map. This one is for a MHI turbo. Even though the surge line is not labeled, you can assume it is the leftmost line on the map. The wheel speed lines terminate against the surge line. During spool up, the surge line represents the combinations of flow and wheel speed that effectively start to compress the air. If the turbo is already spooled up, the surge line represents the stall point for the impeller blades, that is, the minimum flow that can be maintained at a certain impeller speed and pressure difference across the compressor. To help explain this, please consider the analogy of an airplane wing. As an airplane is taking off, it does not lift off the ground until a certain speed is exceeded. This is like the impeller spooling up. Once the air plane is flying, if it goes too slow it stalls and starts falling. This is like surge.
Image

Flow Rating
Turbochargers are often described as having a certain flow rating. As you can see, this is an extreme simplication of the compressor's performance. The flow rating is simply the volume air flow (or mass air flow) at a pressure ratio of 2.0 and some "reasonable" efficiency at a wheel speed below the choke speed. MHI typically selects the flow at the 60% efficiency level. In the flow maps presented here (other than the "raw" maps) I use a circle to note the flow rating value.
Denis AKA 'S', powered by:
  • Adam @ Tuspeed - http://www.tuspeed.com
  • Vin & Steve @ Subaru STi Docklands
  • Ricky @ Tyrepower Essendon

Return to “FAQs, Technical Archives & Most Common Issues”

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 2 guests